Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that cause damage to the nerve of the eye, resulting in irreversible blindness, often without any symptoms.

This damage is often caused by increased pressure in the eye. Glaucoma can occur in anyone at any age; a family history may be present in some. Early diagnosis and careful management are the keys to preventing blindness.


Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.There are four major types of glaucoma

  • Primary Open-Angle
  • Primary Angle-Closure
  • Secondary, and
  • Congenital Glaucoma

Primary Open-Angle:

This is a common cause. Due to degeneration of the eye's drainage system, fluid inside the eye cannot exit the eye fast enough and pressure in the eye builds up. Over time, this high pressure damages the optic nerve at the back of the eye. Vision begins to fail, starting from the periphery. Total blindness occurs when the central vision also becomes affected in the advanced stage.

Primary Angle-Closure:

It occurs when there is a sudden blockage to the exit of the fluid from the eye. This causes a quick rise in eye pressure with severe pain, usually with eye redness, blurring of vision, one-sided headache, nausea, and vomiting. It is often mistaken for a migraine. Acute angle-closure glaucoma can cause blindness rapidly and is a medical emergency. Laser treatment may be indicated for this type of glaucoma.

Congenital Glaucoma:

It is often hereditary and results from the abnormal development of the drainage system of the eye. Early management is vital to prevent blindness.

Secondary Glaucoma:

This can result from many causes, including trauma, mature cataract, steroid medication, inflammatory eye disease, and diabetes.


Treatment for Glaucoma depends on careful evaluation, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment. Early diagnosis is made possible at our hospital as we have comprehensive and advanced glaucoma imaging technology, including confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with topographical change analysis, optical coherence tomography and visual field perimetry with glaucoma progression analysis.


Various types of eye medications are available to lower the eye pressure.


Some types of glaucoma may be treated with a laser to help re-establish the drainage outflow of the eye. This procedure is painless and can be done very quickly as an outpatient procedure.


Those who are allergic to or cannot be adequately controlled with medications or laser may need glaucoma surgery to establish drainage of the eye fluid. After any treatment, regular follow-up is necessary to ensure that there is no progressive damage over time as one continues to age.